The layering system sounds attractive in theory. But as practiced by most hikers it is seriously flawed. It can be heavy, and expensive. And not used properly it could even make you colder. This article points out the major mistakes hikers make when buying and using a clothing layering system. And of course, it has tips on how to properly select and use a better and lighter layering system!
Lead photo: Southern Sierra in a “shoulder season” spell of winter-like conditions—daytime highs below freezing & nighttime low temps around +12 ºF.
|Shoulder Season Update*: Now that hard frosts are becoming common, but the trails are still in decent enough shape for hiking… this updated, seasonal version of this post contains:|
Top Mistakes Using the Layering System
- People bring too many layers as well as the wrong layers. This costs a lot of money and it’s heavy. Try to find a minimal set of light clothing that will work in a broad range of conditions. It can be done!
- A good layering system is NOT about frequently changing layers. Quite the opposite, you should strive to minimize adding or removing layers! A single set of well-selected clothes should work in a broad range of temperatures (from mid-20s °F to around 50 °F) without adding or removing layers. [* “shoulder season” clothing should get you down to +10º to 0º F]
- Frequent stops to change layers can seriously chill you. And once chilled it can be exceptionally hard to get warm again. (In cold weather, constant but moderate movement is what keeps you warm.)
- Overheating and sweating out clothes will get you very cold in the long run. Wet clothing is cold clothing and unhappiness. (And in cold weather it takes a very long time to dry, if ever.)
- A windshirt is not all that it’s cracked up to be. An inexpensive, midweight fleece jacket or (*Patagonia R1 Hoodie) is far more useful cool weather and saves weight. (Among other things, it helps minimize sweating out your clothes!)
- Finally, leave your shorts and short sleeved shirts at home. Long pants and long sleeved shirts are far better and more practical at protecting you from brush, sun, and disease carrying insects than sunscreen and insect repellents. [Note: this year will be a bad one for Lyme. See Best Ways to Protect Yourself from Lyme and Zika While Hiking].
Why Use a Layering System?
A layering system is really just a set of good hiking clothes. It is supposed to keep you safe and comfortable in a broad range of temperatures and environmental conditions (wind, rain, sleet and snow). The layering system is most useful for cold weather (in warm weather, a light top and bottom usually suffice). Ideally, this layering system should be simple, light and inexpensive.
In cold weather the challenge for a layering system is to have you:
- Not freeze when hiking in low temperatures and/or at low physical exertion levels (e.g. walking downhill)
- But also not overheat and soak your clothing with sweat as temperatures get warmer and/or at high physical exertion levels (e.g. hiking uphill with a pack on)
- To protect you from wind and precipitation
- Finally, have a very warm layer ready (usually a down jacket) to keep warm at rest stops and in camp
A Layering System for Hiking and Backpacking
This clothing layering system is designed for 3-season conditions (spring, summer, and fall) and for temperatures from the mid-20s °F and up. It has withstood the test of time and many difficult environments. I’ve used this layering system for the past 5 years hiking in many places and many seasons in the US and on 3 continents. And with surprisingly little variation it has worked exceptionally well from the high mountains, to the desert and jungles of South America. (Note: to be very clear, this system is not for full-on winter hiking. But I have included some clothing adjustments (in blue) for brief periods of winter-like conditions of the shoulder seasons of late fall and early spring.)
The following layering system is slightly tuned towards cooler temperatures of the high mountains, or early spring and late fall at lower elevations (e.g. March on the Appalachian trail). But I’ve also added a few options in a subsequent table for warmer, more humid conditions (e.g. the Appalachian Trial mid-summer, or the tropical jungle).
This post is in four parts
- Layering System for Colder Weather, including the”shoulder season”
- Shoulder Season Gear Hacks Addendum Table. Non-clothing gear like shelter and sleeping bag to keep warm early season “winter-like” conditions
- Layering System for Warm Weather (also Lyme & Zika Protection)
- The Essential Techniques to Use these Layering Systems
1) Layering System for Colder WeatherNote: much of the following is from my top-ranked 9 Pound, Full Comfort, Lightweight Backpacking Gear List). Take a peek at it for an integrated set of gear that won’t weigh you down and break your back.
Including the “shoulder season” – Spring or Fall with potential winter-like conditions
|shirt and baselayer*||$40 REI 1/4-Zip Tech Shirt 6.5 |
Smartwool PhD Light 1/4-Zip 8.8
|8.0||Neck zipper key to warmth management|
(for cold Wx)
|Patagonia R1 Hoodie||12.5||Think of it as “fur for humans.” possibly the most versatile cold to very cold weather base layer. It works over an astonishing range of conditions.|
|Mid-layer top*||TNF TKA 100 1/4 Zip Pullover or|
Amazon 100wt fleece w zipper
|7.9||Sadly it appears that 100 wt fleece shirts like this are a dying breed. You may still be able to find a few. Otherwise go for a 200 wt one, the Patagonia R1 Hoodie above or a Patagonia R2 garment|
|Midlayer active layer top (alt)||Patagonia Nano-Air|
OR Ascendant Insulated Hoodie
|13.0||New highly air-permeable (super breathable) shell, synthetic fill jackets are a new alternative to fleece. More expensive and less durable they are lighter and more compressible for equivalent warmth, especially when it’s very cold and/or windy.|
|Rain Jacket||Outdoor Research Helium II or|
REI Coop Rain Jacket $35-$70!
|6.4||Light rain-jacket is just as dry as a heavy one|
Use as “windshirt” only when very cold
(for cold Wx)
|Outdoor Research Interstellar|
Montbell Storm Cruiser
Patagonia M10 Anorak only 8 oz!
|10.9||Given that I will likely be wearing my jacket more frequently (both for rain and as a “windshirt” when cold), I favor a more breathable & durable 3-layer construction for shoulder season (SS). Outdoor Research Interstellar is my current favorite.|
|Outdoor Research Helium (6.0 oz)|
Zpacks Vertice Rain Pants (3.6! oz)
|6.0||While I might not bring them on all 2+ season trips, I DO bring rain pants in the (SS). Vertice pants are super light and crazy breathable.|
|Warm jacket|| A high quality down jacket (REI)|
or Feathered Friends Eos Jacket
|10.5||For occasional rest stops. Moderate/consistent movement is key to keeping warm when it’s cold|
|Feathered Friends Helios Jacket|
or Montbell Mirage (12.8 oz)
|13||In very cold Wx a puffy jacket essential for warmth in camp, rest stops AND at night to supplement your down sleeping bag/quilt.|
|For more down jackets and down pants see: Recommended Down Jackets, Pants, and Booties|
|Pants*||REI Sahara Pants||14||Ex Officio and many others make similar pants|
(for cold Wx)
|West. Mtn. Flash Pants (6.5)|
Montbell Superior Down Pants 8.4
FF Heilos Down Pants (13)
|6.5||For colder weather. West. Mtn. pants light & warm!|
Montbell’s a great value in down pants.
Helios crazy warm with side zips.
|Underwear||ExOfficio Give-N-Go M’s or W’s||2.0||Dry fast, will rinse/wash most days|
|Gloves||Defeet DuraGloves (2.5)||2.5||Great liner glove. Light, warm, durable! (or similar)|
|Rain Mitts (bring them!)||REI Minimalist Mitts or|
MLD eVENT Rain Mitts (1.2)
|1.2||Critical for keeping hands warm and dry in cold rain. Also work as great wind shells.|
(for cold Wx)
|RBH Designs Vapor Mitt||9.0||My goto insulated mitts (I have a 4oz UL Version)|
|Gloves – cold & wet conditions||Showa Japanese fishing gloves||4.5||Alternative hand-wear for wet & cold. Waterproof, breathable, with grippy rubber-like shell.|
|Shoes||Altra Superior Trail-Running or|
Brooks Cascadia Trail-Runners
|18||Altra: Light, huge toe room, super comfortable!|
Brooks: tried and tru trail favorite.
|Socks||SmartWool PhD Light Mini or|
Darn Tough 1/4 UL w cushion
|1.8||Key to keeping feet warm is to keep moving and NOT warmer socks|
|Camp footwear||Feathered Friends Down Booties||For those with cold feet. Put on with dry socks as soon as you get into camp!|
|Warm hat||Warm watch cap/beanie (REI)|
or OR Option Balaclava (1.8)
|1.8||Also note that a hooded down jacket is HIGHLY DESIREABLE. And the built in hood on the Patagonia R1 Hoodie is excellent|
|Cold hands and feet||Chemical hand warmer and foot warmer packets||Critical re-warming contingency/backup for hands and feet in case you blow it and get them too cold to warm up again on their own.|
2) Shoulder Season Gear Hacks Addendum Table
The following is excerpted from Why You Won’t Freeze or Starve Ultralight Backpacking. This gear (in combination with the clothing above) will keep you warm and protected with a minimal increase in weight over 2+ season gear.
- Your tent doesn’t keep you warm. The hard reality is that the temperature inside your tent, at best, will only be a few degrees warmer than the outside temperature.
- Your tent just keeps the wind and rain off (very important!)—but so will a tarp or pyramid shelter.
- What does keep you warm is a puffy down sleeping bag and jacket. Usually used in combo when it’s super cold. That is, down get you the most warmth for its weight.
- So get a good down jacket and a down sleeping bag or quilt vs. spending extra bucks and weight on a bomber shelter. That is the difference in weight between a 14 oz pyramid shelter and a 3+ pound tent will get you some incredible warmth in down gear and clothing!
- Don’t believe the dire warnings about getting down wet—it’s hard to do. In over 40 years of backpacking all over the world in all sorts of conditions, I have yet to get my down so wet that it didn’t keep me warm. (New water resistant shell fabrics and water resistant down only improve upon this.)
|Tent/Shelter||Mountain Laurel Des. Solomid XL|
HMG Ultamid 2 Pyramid Shelter
|14.0||Late season bugs non-existent. Pyramid design is light, strong, and able to withstand rain, snow and hight winds at a fraction of the weight of a tent. Super easy to setup (faster than most tents!).|
(a warm one!)
|REI Co-op Magma Bag (32 oz)|
Feath. Friends Merlin UL 30 23 oz
FF Hummingbird UL 20 (25 oz)
|Feathered Friends are among warmest & lightest bags. Conservatively, rated they are likely +20 and +10F respectively.|
|Sleeping Quilt||Hammock Gear Burrow Quilt +10||18.0||I add +2 oz of down (to a +20F quilt) in the top vertical baffles to bring temp rating to around +10F. Great value! ~1/2 cost of sleeping bag.|
|For more on Sleeping bags and Quilts see: The Art of Sleeping Warm – A Guide to Sleeping Bags and Quilts|
|T-Rest NeoAir X-lite “Women’s”|
Therm-a-Rest NeoAir XTherm
Therm-a-Rest RidgeRest 1/2 pad
|12.1||“Women’s” R3.9 lighter/warmer than Men’s. Best for for men too! XTherm, R5.7, is warmer & heavier. For a light, low cost hack cut Therm-a-Rest RidgeRest pad in half & put it over the top of your current pad (shoulder to knees).|
3) Layering System for Warm Weather (also Lyme & Zika Protection)
Note: Many of these layers are also perfectly appropriate for cold and temperate weather. As such, they bear serious consideration if you only want to buy one set of clothing for 3 seasons (Spring, Summer and Fall). In contrast to cold weather layering systems, this warm weather version also:
- Protects you from Solar Radiation
- Keeps you cool when it is hot
- Protects you from bug transmitted diseases such as Lyme and Zika
And as stated earlier, long pants and long sleeved shirts are far better and more practical at protecting you from brush, sun, and disease carrying insects. Chemical sunscreens and insect repellent lotions take a lot of time to correctly apply to large areas of skin. And they don’t last nearly as long as the near-lifetime* effectiveness of long pants and long sleeve shirts against bugs and sun.
Note it’s going to be the worst year yet for Lyme Disease. For more detailed information on how to protect yourself see: Best Ways to Protect Yourself from Lyme and Zika While Hiking.
|Hat (repellent)||Exofficio Bugsaway Hat||Bug repellent for upper head. And sun protection|
|Shirt hiking*||RailRiders Men’s Journeyman Shirt w Insect Shield & Women’s Oasis||Cool fabric, mesh side vents, sun protection, Clothing bug repellent lasts 70 washes (vs. sprays 8-14 hrs)|
|Shirt (alt)||Exofficio Bugs Away Halo Long Sleeve Shirt Men’s and Women’s||Also good, widely available via Amazon and other retailers like REI. 70 wash insect repellent.|
|Pants hiking*||ExOfficio BugsAway Ziwa Pants Men’s and Women’s||Available in both Men’s and Women’s. Light, cool, sun protection. 70 wash insect repellent.|
|Pants (alt)||RailRiders Men’s Eco-Mesh Pant with Insect Shield||RailRiders pants have huge side vent on legs for cooling. 70 wash insect repellent.|
|Gaiters||Dirty Girl gaiters (fun colors!) or|
REI Co-op Activator Gaiters
|Seals pants against tick entry. No ankle gaps. Can be treated with permethrin spray.|
|Gaiter trap shoe|
|Altra Lone Peak shoes or|
Altra Superior shoes
|Velcro “gaiter trap” permanently attached to heel of shoe. (adhesive ones that come with gaiters only work for a while)|
* You can treat your own clothing with Permethrin spray (REI) or (Amazon). This lasts for up to 6 weeks or 6 washings. (For comparison: factory treated clothing is good for up to 70 washings, essentially “life-time” use). Both clothing treatments far exceed the 8-14 hours of skin applied repellents like Picaridin and DEET. And they don’t require the time/attention needed to properly apply repellents to large areas of skin each day
4) Essential Techniques to Use these Layering Systems
Keep Hiking When It’s Cold
In colder weather, you can spend far too much time stopping to adjust layers. This is especially true on hilly trails where you are consistently getting sweaty and hot going uphill, and freezing while on ridges and going downhill. Moderate but consistent movement, not stopping for layer changes, is the key to keeping warm when it’s cold.
- Hiking to keep warm needn’t be at all tiring or strenuous.
- Even walking 1 to 1.5 miles per hour should keep your internal, metabolic heater going, and keep your hands and feet warm. If you are getting tired you are going too fast!
- Minimize stops to essential needs, and don’t make them longer than necessary. When you stop, you get cold quickly and it takes a long time to warm up again. If you’re starting to chill it’s time to move.
- If you really need to stop for a longer time (over 5 minutes), try to do it in a warmer, more protected area and put on warm clothing (e.g. a high quality down jacket) as soon as you stop. Take your warm clothing off just before you start hiking again. Or after you have been walking for a few minutes. (note: I store the jacket as the topmost item in the main bag of my backpack so I can quickly retrieve it and put it back.)
- When starting to hike, I put on just enough clothing to keep me warm when moving. (It might take 5-10 minutes at a brisk pace to get fully warm. Then I can back-off to my normal hiking pace.)
- Overdressing, getting hot and then sweating out is a great way to get wet and then really cold. It’s very easy to get clothing wet, but it takes a long time to dry it out in cold and damp weather. Wet clothing is cold clothing and unhappiness. [Note this is where the better venting fleece jacket outshines a windshirt, allowing sweat to pass through your clothing and evaporate!]
- Temperature adjustments are made without stopping or changing a top or bottom layer. Too hot? take off hat and gloves (put in pants pockets). To further cool unzip fleece jacket and/or your base layer, and possibly push sleeves up. Too cold? reverse the procedure.
- I only add warmer clothing when I can no longer stay warm walking at a comfortable pace (and with a good clothing system, this is a rare).
- If you do need to change layers do it quickly. What most people don’t realize is how much time it takes to stop, take your pack off, put-on or take-off a layer, put your pack back on and start hiking again. It’s plenty long enough seriously to chill!
- If it’s extremely cold and windy, I will use my rain jacket as a windshell (note: unzipping your rain jacket all the way is a major cooling force when needed).
- At the risk of pointing out the obvious, put on your rainwear before you get wet. Have your rainwear readily available on the outside of your pack so you can put it on quickly and without opening your main pack bag and exposing your pack contents to rain. (I like to keep it in the large rear pocket.)
- When wearing your rain jacket pay special attention to not sweating out your clothing. Adjust and ventilate your clothing and/or slow your hiking pace as necessary. As above, it’s very easy to get clothing wet, but it takes a long time to dry it out in cold and damp weather.
- And if it’s going to rain for a long time you are going to get wet—it’s inevitable one way or the other. Just try to do your best to keep warm and minimize it. [A discussion on how to deal with long periods of rain (like days), is another whole topic and beyond the scope of this post.]
A Fleece Jacket is Better than a Windshirt?
I find that in cool weather (where a layering system is most useful) a fleece shirt is better. For almost the same weight of a windshirt, a light 100 weight fleece shirt has a greater temperature range for comfort — which means fewer clothing changes. And a thin fleece doesn’t trap moisture in the same way as windshirt. Yes, against common perception, windshirts are not all that “breathable!” Try running on a warm day in a T-shirt and then in a T-shirt with a windshirt over it if you don’t believe this. (Note: many cheap fleece jackets in the $20 range may work fine. I’ve been using one that was a giveaway at triathlon I did. It works great!)
- A light 100 or 200 weight fleece shirt or jacket is far warmer than a windshirt and more versatile It is an excellent insulating mid-layer, and it does a surprisingly good job of slowing down the wind. (Sadly many major brands are discontinuing their 100 wt fleece shirts. You may need to make due with 200 wt/mid-wight fleece OR buy a thinner “cheap” fleece at stores like Target. Oh, and the Patagonia R1 Hoodie is still a great option albeit a bit pricy.)
- Note: this is for inexpensive fleece that has a much tighter weave and is far more wind resistant than more open weave, high tech fleece like Patagonia R2. As such, the fleece does an a decent job keeping wind from penetrating your clothing. BUT it is far less clammy and more breathable than a windshirt, allowing sweat to pass through your clothing and evaporate.
- By the time it’s cold enough and windy enough to warrant a fully windproof shell like a windshirt, my rain jacket does fine. By then it’s cold enough that condensation from the rain jacket is not a huge issue.
- Finally, it’s lighter. Since you’d bring a fleece layer anyway, you save the weight of a windshirt and simplify your layering system.
- That being said, a good windshirt is only 3 ounces, so bring one if you want! (I just find that I end up in a taking it on and off scenario to control heat and prevent sweating out. And this ends up with extra stops and lost time.)
Enjoy Your Hike!
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