We’ve completely overhauled our Backpacking Food to the latest research and thinking on the best hiking food & nutrition. So whatever your diet, low carb, keto, omnivore, vegetarian, & vegan we give you the latest knowledge available to create a healthy and nutritious trail diet that will put a spring in your step.

Our Low Carb Backpacking Food List is nutritious & has all calories of traditional backpacking food but it’s healthier & 1/2 the weight!

Our Keto Backpacking Food List is nutritious & has all calories of traditional backpacking food but it’s KETO & 1/2 the weight!

There is no exact answer to this question. In my “The Best Backpacking Food – simple and nutritious”, I threw out the best guess of 1.5 lb of food per day. But how but much food you need depends on who you are and what you do.

1.5 Pounds per Day | “Regular” Hiking Food

In the last 15 years of backpacking I personally seem to have settled on around 1.5 pounds per day of food give or take a bit. And again, I believe this is a good target for most hikers and it has worked well for most of my backpacking clients.  This is for warm season backpacking with up to 12 miles per day (possibly more) with some off-trail travel. If I am going for killer trips, like 10-12 solid hours of hiking per day it will be more like 1.8 pounds of food per day.

Over the years I have lowered my hiking pace, but hike longer and take fewer breaks. I find that a slower hiking pace of 2.5 miles per hour (average including stops) is much more efficient calorie-wise than hiking at a faster pace. Most accomplished long distance thru-hikers I have talked to use a similar approach. Also, I find the slower pace beats up my body less and I get up the next morning fresh and ready to hike another day.

1.2 Pounds per Day | “Low Carb” Hiking Food

In the past 5 years I’ve had good success with 1.2 lb of Low Carb Hiking food = 3,000 calories. That’s almost 1/2 the weight of the 2 lb per day most hikers carry. Nonetheless, it’s plenty nutritious and since it’s around 150 calories/oz it provides the same calories. Go ahead and checkout our Low Carb Hiking Food List | 3 Day.

2022 | Keto Hiking Food, 1 lb/day: I in the last 3 years I have gone to keto hiking food. I’ve successfully used it on all my trips for up to 3 weeks, even when guiding north of the Arctic Circle in Alaska. My Keto Food averages out to around 1 pound per day for 3,000 calories. (But you need to be bonafide keto adapted before using this on the the trail. This means you likely need to have been following a consistent keto diet at home for at least a few months. And you need to be testing at home that you actually are in ketosis).

Estimating How Much Food You Need

In an example below, in order to not lose weight, a 160 pound male hiking 10 miles a day, with a 3,000 elevation gain, would need around 4,000 calories per day, or 2.0 pounds of food per day (assuming a caloric density of 125 calories per ounce). This is a very rough estimate, and should not be taken too seriously. You will need to do some experimenting to determine you own caloric needs for on the trail.

From this it is clear that 1.5 pounds of food per day (a figure often used by ultralight hikers) does not work for all situations, and for all people. Although that 1.5 lb of food per day will likely work well for many people on a short trip (e.g. a 3-day-weekend — where they not doing long miles and long hours of hiking per day. And for most of us, if you end up metabolizing/burning off a pound of fat on a trip, it’s all for the better [since backpacking is one of the supreme fat burning activities]!

But just because you can get by on 1.5 lb of food per day, doesn’t mean that it’s the best way to eat in all situations. Obviously serious thru hikers need more like 5,000+ calories per day to maintain their body weight. And even if you aren’t grinding thru hiking miles — if you are a fit person, hiking decent miles per day, and don’t want to lose weight, you’ll likely need more than 1.5 lbs of food per day.

Factors to consider for how much food you pack

  • How much do you weigh?
  • Does your metabolism run high or low?
  • How far will you hike each day?
  • How fast will you hike?
  • For how many days?
  • How much elevation gain?
  • At what altitude?
  • At what temperatures?
  • How difficult is the terrain?
  • What type of shape are you in?
  • What are you used to eating?
  • How much excess body fat do you have?
  • Do you want to lose weight? Etc., etc.I

An (over) simplified example of food need calculations. An estimate! (see Note 1):

  • A 160 lb person has a base metabolism of approx. 2,200 cal/day
  • 10 miles hiking with a 30 lb backpack at 120 cal/mi, is another 1,200 calories.
  • Assume 3,000 elevation gain is another 600 calories.
  • Total caloric expenditure: 4,000 cal/day
  • 1.5 pounds of food at 125 cal/oz = 3,000 calories. (see Note 2)
  • Caloric deficit = 1,000 cal/per day. Or around 1/3 lb of hiker per day (this is fat metabolized/burned)

Under this very simplified estimate, our 160 pound hiker runs a 1,000 calorie per day deficit. They would lose about 1/3 lb per day or around 2 lb per week. If our hiker was a bit overweight and didn’t mind being hungry this might be OK or even desirable. But it’s probable that they would feel better and hike faster if they weren’t running a caloric deficit.

For someone near their ideal weight, running a 1,000 calorie a day deficit might not be a good idea. It might be OK for a few days, but not for long outings. It’s not that you can’t do it if you have to. I’ve hiked 3 days without food.

  • Is it good for your health?
  • Will you feel great and enjoy your outing?
  • Will you hike your fastest?
  • Will your body have the nutrition to recover after a hard day of hiking?
  • Will you be more injury prone?
  • Will you be alert and make safe decisions?
  • What will your moods be like around others?

The answers and decisions to these questions and what you do is quite is personal. There are not right answers or decisions. But it makes sense to think about these a bit so you come up with the best food plan for you.

Note 1: I realize that this is a this very simplified estimate. Base metabolism, hiking efficiency, etc. are variable. The best approach is to do some on or off trail testing and see what caloric intake works best for you. Note that you may be able to get by on a low calorie intake but your athletic performance may go down as well. I know that I can eat 2,200 calories a day and ride my bike 175-200 miles per week. I also know that if I do this, I feel terrible, I loose around 2 lb per week, I can be cross with those around me, and my overall riding speed drops 1-2 mph. At around 3,200-3,500 calories a day I feel great, don’t gain weight, and can train at high intensity.

Note 2: I believe that most of us will end up averaging around 125-130 cal/oz even when packing high fat items like chocolate and peanut butter, etc. as part of our food. Low carb hiking food can be up to 150 cal/oz is doable for many people.

Note 3:  Keto Hiking food can be as high as 170+ cal/oz. But this is a specialized diet. You need to be bonafide keto adapted before using this on the the trail. This means you likely need to have been following a serious keto diet at home for at least a few months. And you need to be testing that you actually are in ketosis using a Blood testing meter (Keto Mojo is the best and what I use) or Breath meter (Amazon) although I use the KEYTO Breath Meter


  1. To be very clear, I am not a Medical Doctor or a Nutritionist. What I share here is from my personal experience as a backpacker for over 50 years, professional backpacking guide, outdoor writer and an elite athlete. As such, this post should in no way be considered professional medical or nutritional advice. When in doubt, consult with the correct board certified professional.
  2. This post contains affiliate links. If you make a purchase after clicking on the these links, a portion of the sale helps support this site at no additional cost to you. I do not receive compensation from the companies whose products are listed. For product reviews: unless otherwise noted, products are purchased with my own funds. I am never under an obligation to write a review about any product. Finally, this post expresses my own independent opinion.

Our camp coffee is delicious! Try our pour over coffee method to make your next backpacking coffee and be pleasantly surprised!

Based on extensive field and lab testing, I believe that the Trail Designs Kojin Ultralight Alcohol Stove  is the best alcohol stove system for ultralight backpacking (when paired with a Caldera or TriTi Cone). The new Kojin stove is incredibly fuel efficient and easy to use but best of all it boils water fast! And that’s rare for an alcohol stove.  As such, the Kojin stove has earned its place in my pack as “most favored stove.”

Test setup (lead pic): TD Kojin Stove, with Toaks 1350 ml Ultralight Titanium Pot and TD Ti-Tri titanium cone.

Highlights of Trail Designs Kojin Ultralight Alcohol Stove

  • Fast boil times. Just over 5 minutes to boil a pint! And that’s ripping fast for an alcohol stove.
    (Faster than the previous stove I used, the Standard Zelph Stove1.)
  • Fuel efficient. Uses less than ½ fluid oz (13.8) ml to boil a pint.
    [Many (most?) alcohol stoves use approximately twice that amount of fuel, especially when windy.]
  • No wasted fuel waiting for stove to burn out. No need for precise fuel measurement and waiting for the stove to burn out. Just pour an ounce of fuel in. When the pot boils, snuff the stove out and cap it. Unused fuel is saved and ready for your next cooking session.
  • Safe. Fuel will not spill out of stove. (fiber filler material captures alcohol fuel). Great for safety. You really don’t want to spill alcohol fuel.

What are the Advantages of an Alcohol Backpacking Stove?

Note: If alcohol stoves aren’t your thing, this is an equal opportunity website. So check out my post Best Backpacking Stove System | Trail Designs Caldera vs. JetBoil. Then you can decide which stove is best for you. And yes, the JetBoil is a great fuel-efficient stove system too! Just a canister one.


Quick Specs Kojin Stove

Link on Trail Design’s Website: https://www.traildesigns.com/products/kojin-stove

  • Weight: 16g,  0.56 oz
  • Material: Aluminum body with proprietary fibrous filler
  • Dimensions: 62mm diameter x 22mm thick, 2.4 in x 0.87 in
  • Fuel Capacity: 40 ml, ~1.3 fluid ounces
  • Fuel efficiency*: ~14 to 15 ml to boil a pint at 70°F/20°C  at sea level
  • Time to Boil 16 oz*: ~5.5 to 6 minutes – with wide bottom pots of 0.9 to 1.3 liters
  • Operating temp: I’ve used the stove to 12°F (-11°C). Stove lit right up & boiled water without difficulty

* when paired with a Trail Designs Caldera or TriTi Cone.
Note: While the Kojin is primarily for use with the Caldera/Ti-Tri systems, it can also be used in conjunction with your own pot stand and wind screen.

The Details – Kojin Ultralight Alcohol Stove

Trail Designs Kojin Ultralight Alcohol Stove

Starting bottom right and moving left: The Kojin Stove easily fits into the Toaks 900 Pot, with room for a TD Ti-Tri titanium cone, spoon, lighter and matches. On the left is the Kojin stove showing its white, fibrous filler material and screw on cap that seals the stove. Finally (upper left) is a twin reservoir fuel bottle that makes measuring alcohol fuel a breeze. Best fuel bottle on the market!

Trail Designs Kojin Ultralight Alcohol Stove is composed of an aluminum screw top “pill case” style housing. Inside is a proprietary, white fibrous filler that acts both as a wick and as a fuel stabilizer to prevent spills. You can turn the stove on its side and the fuel won’t drain out. It is designed by Trial Designs to be used inside their Caldera or TriTi Cone systems. [See lead picture for an example of a TriTi Cone system.]

Note: pour fuel slowly into the stove’s fiber compound. If you pour too fast some of fuel may run over the side before it completely absorbs in to the fiber compound. I find that the stove is most easily filled using the Liberty Mountain Twin Neck Fuel Bottle (see right). With a squeeze the bottle easily measures out 1/4 or 1/2 oz of fuel. And a flip top spout on the reservoir side is great for precise pours. I find that its 8+ oz capacity works for a 7-day trip (at least for me). A testament to the stove’s efficiency.

After that put the stove in the cone and carefully light it with a match or lighter [some light the stove an then put the cone over it]. When your water boils take your pot off the cone and blow the stove out (it isn’t hard). Then you can gently place the cap loosely on the stove being careful not to touch the hot stove [but don’t screw it down]. This prevents heated fuel from rapidly evaporating.

After the stove has cooled sufficiently to safely handle! (~ 5 minutes) you can screw the cap down to seal the stove and save the fuel for your next cooking session.

Which Pot Works Best?

While the Kojin Stove will work with many pots and stoves, I find it works optimally with wide bottom pots of 0.9 to 1.3 liters. E.g. Evernew and Toaks 900 and Toaks 1300 pots (the Toaks Pots are a particularly good value). With these pots you get fuel efficiency of 15 ml fuel to boil a pint or better! And the fast burn rate of the stove, and wide heat transfer are of the pot bottom gives you fast boil times. You can buy these pots at Trail Designs or Amazon.

Compared To?

All of the stoves below are similar in weight (15 to 17g) and work well with the TD Caldera or TriTi Cone system. They are discussed below from left to right:

Trail Designs Kojin Ultralight Alcohol Stove

  • On the left is my well used May 2017 prototype stove. After a ton of use it still works great. The cap shows the grey sealing material.
  • Next is the production Kojin Ultralight Alcohol Stove. Mostly cosmetic changes, altho the finish on the production version makes the cap easier to screw on and off. I find this stove excellent for solo use. But it’s also my stove of choice for my wife and I to share where we use it with a Toaks 900 or Toaks 1300 pot.
  • 1 Then the Standard Zelph Stove with the steel mesh covering its proprietary filler compound. The Zelph is a good stove with similar fuel saving properties. But a smaller surface area and the steel mesh slow the Zelph’s heat output for slower burn times. And I find the plastic sealing cap (green) tends to loosen up over time and not seal as tightly.
  • Finally the Classic Trail Designs 12-10 Stove. Still a great stove and it boils a bit faster than the Kojin (but it’s close). It also holds more fuel so it’s better if you boiling a lot of water/cooking for multiple people. Downsides are: 1) the stove won’t easily fit in a pot with a sidewinder cone like the Kojin and Zelph stoves. 2) you can’t save fuel—you have to let the stove burn out after it boils. And 3) you have to use stakes, inserted into sidewinder cones to raise the pot up in the cone for optimal operation. So in my opinion, the Kojin is a far better stove than the the Classic 12-10.

What could be Better

  1. The filler material doesn’t absorb fuel quickly as you pour it in. If you pour too fast some will run over the sides. Having a slight lip on the stove above the filler material would fix this. [Right now the filler material is flush with the top of the stove]. Workaround, for now, is to use a flip spout cap on your fuel bottle. This will give you the control necessary to easily fill the stove. Again, the Liberty Mountain Twin Neck Fuel Bottle is the best for this purpose.
  2. I could wish for a bit more capacity than 40 ml. My biggest problem is over filling the stove after 3 to 4 uses. At that point I don’t really know how much remaining fuel is in the stove, and I can over fill if I don’t watch carefully. Even 50 ml capacity would be a help. Again the work around is to pour carefully from the spout of the Liberty Mountain Twin Neck Fuel Bottle.


Since the first prototypes in May 2017, I’ve been field (and lab) testing the new TD Kojin Ultralight Alcohol Stove. After many weeks of use in the field, the stove has performed almost flawlessly. This included using it down to near single digit temperatures at 11,000 feet in the Sierras. The Kojin stove lit right up in the morning with no issues and quickly boiled my water. Because of this, the Kojin stove now goes on every trip with me — whether I am traveling solo or with my wife.

Trail Designs Kojin Ultralight Alcohol Stove

I used the Kojin stove in near single digit temperatures at 11,000 feet in the Sierras. The stove lit right up in the morning with no issues and quickly boiled my water.

Further Reading


This post contains some affiliate links. If you make a purchase after clicking on the these links, a small portion of the sale helps support this site at no additional cost to you. I do not receive compensation from the companies whose products are listed. I am never under an obligation to write a review about any product. Finally, this post expresses my own independent opinion.

Trail Designs provide samples of the Kojin stove and Toaks 1350ml UL Pot and Sidewinder Ti-Tri.


These tasty and nutritious backpacking meal recipes are healthier, have more calories and cost less than commercial, freeze dried backpacking meals. Keep it simple — there are enough nutritious backpacking meal recipes here to provide sufficient daily variety to keep meals fun and interesting. But there aren’t so many recipes that I spend too much time buying ingredients and assembling a large inventory of gourmet meals. I’d rather spend my time hiking than fussing with food.

Note: This is a companion piece to my top rated post, Best Backpacking Food – simple and nutritious – veggie and omnivore friendly which has more detailed info on nutrition and backpacking food choices.

Photo: Author eating dinner in the Alaska Range – credit: Andrew Skurka

Meal Rotation Planner — Nutritious Backpacking Meal Recipes

Keep it simple — I rotate 2 to 3 meal options for each trip. This provides enough food variety on the trail. By limiting meals to 2 to 3 nutritious backpacking meal recipes, I simplify food purchasing and meal prep.

Backpacking Meal Planner – example of a 3-day rotation
Day Breakfast Lunch Dinner
1 None: eat large one off-trail #1 Wrap+cheese & mustard (fruit #1) #1 Rice+beans w chips+cheese
2 #1 Muesli #2 Bison+sesame stix (dried fruit #2) #2 Couscous curry
3 #2 Hot oatmeal/cream-o-wheat #3 Crackers+almond butter (fruit #3) #3 Chili mac
4 #3 Grape-Nuts + strawberries #1 Wrap+cheese & mustard (fruit #1) #1 Rice+beans w chips+cheese
#1 Muesli #2 Bison+sesame stix (dried fruit #2) #2 Couscous curry
6 #4 Quick breakfast meal bar #3 Crackers+almond butter (fruit #3) None: eat large one off-trail

If you don’t already have one get an inexpensive kitchen scale that weighs up to 11 pounds (5 Kg). Almost all the ingredients are measured by weight for these recipes.

Nutritious Backpacking Meal Recipes

If you don’t already have one get an inexpensive kitchen scale that weighs up to 11 pounds (5 Kg). Almost all the ingredients are measured by weight for these recipes.

Breakfast Recipes

The following are nutritious and filling breakfasts that should keep a spring in your step until lunch! They have healthy fats and a good amount of protein. Note that the table below is in scrollable window. Please scroll down to see all the recipes Or you can see ALL THE RECIPES full page here, as a Google Sheet

Dinner mid-way up Mt. Olympus, Olympic Peninsula Washington State.

Dinner mid-way up Mt. Olympus, Olympic Peninsula, Washington State.

Dinner Recipes

The following are nutritious backpacking dinner recipes. These are filling meals at around 700-800 calories per serving! They have healthy fats and a good amount of protein. Note that the table below is in scrollable window. Please scroll down to see all the recipes Or you can see ALL THE DINNER RECIPES on a full page here, as a Google Sheet

Nutritious Backpacking Meal Recipes

Rehydrating in a Ziplock bag makes cleanup much easier. Especially nice in “dry” camps. You usually use less fuel as you kill your stove as soon as the water boils. Downside is that the meal does not rehydrate as well as when it’s cooked in the pot, and rehydration can take longer. A long handled spoon pictured here helps reach into deep baggies without getting your fingers covered in food.

Dessert and Hot Drink Recipes

The following are just few ideas for desserts and after dinner drinks. Note that the table below is in scrollable window. Please scroll down to see all the recipes Or you can see ALL THE DINNER RECIPES full page here, as a Google Sheet

Nutritious Backpacking Meal Recipes

Cooking a meal in the pot does a better job of rehydrating a meal. Especially if you let it simmer for a few minutes after a boil. Downside is that the pot is harder to clean, especially with cheese. And food can burn to the pot bottom if you aren’t careful. (photo: Andrew Skurka)

Rice And Beans With Cheese And Tortilla Chips

Use these healthy freeze dried Black Beans & Rice (available at REI) or at Amazon. Open the meal bag and add 2 oz of Just Hot Veggies or any of Just Tomatoes FD veggies.

Then separately package in ziplock snack baggies:

  • 3-4 oz cheddar cheese (cubed or shredded)
  • 2 oz of lightly salted tortilla chips of your choice (lightly crushed)

Place both the cheese and chip baggies back in the meal bag and reseal it.

Meal Prep Directions

  • pour 17 to 18 oz hot water into the meal packet and set aside to re-hydrate
  • after about 5 minutes, stir in cheese
  • when full hydrated (about 10 min), crumble tortilla chips over the top and enjoy!

Note: eat in packet with long spoons unless you want to be scraping cheese out of your pot and/or bowls for some time.

Nutritious Backpacking Meal Recipes

Dinner in a remote canyon in the Escalante Grand Staircase.

best backpacking stove

Excellent engineering: Trail Designs Caldera, the best alcohol stove system, and the JetBoil, the best canister stove system. What makes these systems “best” is that they are fuel-efficient, wind-resistant, stable and stow into a small package.

To keep things short and simple, here are the two best backpacking stove systems:
The best alcohol stove system, Trail Designs Caldera, and the best canister stove system, JetBoil. What makes both these systems “best” is that the stove, pot, and windscreen/heat exchanger are an integrated unit, thoughtfully engineered for:

  • Fuel efficiency (they both have heat exchangers to increase the percentage of heat actually transferred to the pot to boil water). For JetBoil this is a ring of fins on the bottom of the pot, FluxRing®. This increases the surface area for heat transfer—similar to a car radiator operated in reverse. For the TD Caldera, the entire pot and stove are enclosed in the heated Caldera cone. Thus the whole surface area of the pot, including the sides transfer heat. The cone also reduces convective heat loss (chimney effect) by trapping the heated air in the cone and a slowing the heated air from rising away from the pot.
  • Stability (you can’t knock the pot off the stove, or easily knock the whole shebang over). Both systems lock the pot to the stove system so it can’t be knocked off the stove (a big problem with standard canister stoves). The wide base of the Caldera cone and low height makes the entire system almost impossible to knock over. JetBoil provides a plastic “stabilizer tripod” that fits onto the base of the fuel canister, making it harder but not impossible to knock the whole system over.
  • Wind resistance The TD Caldera is the most wind resistant. The stove is completely protected by the Caldera cone. The JetBoil stove burner is partially protected by the FluxRing and a metal shroud at the base of the stove burner. In a strong wind it will loose efficiency.
  • Compact Storage both neatly nest into a small compact unit for storage

Best Backpacking Stove – Comparison Trail Designs Caldera vs. JetBoil

Below are the essential Pros and Cons for each system. While I clearly prefer the Trail Designs Caldera alcohol system, there’s no wrong choice. They are both good cooking systems. Systems compared are for two people for a long weekend. See below for all the gritty details.


Trail Designs Caldera Cone system. The entire pot and stove are enclosed in the extremely wind-resistant and heated Caldera cone. Thus the whole surface area of the pot, including the sides transfer heat. The cone also reduces convective heat loss (chimney effect) by trapping the heated air in the cone and slowing the heated air from rising away from the pot. Clockwise from bottom left: Zelph “StarLyte Burner with lid,” fuel bottle with measuring cup, 900 ml titanium pot sitting on the Caldera cone, camp spoon and matches.

Trail Designs Caldera – alcohol stove  JetBoil Zip – canister stove
  • 9.7 oz – $120 tested – *options to $55 available
  • Pros: light, exceptionally stable & wind resistant, fuel efficient, can easily get cheap alcohol fuel almost everywhere in the world, take only the fuel you need, no canister disposal in waste, wide pot easy to cook in and easy to clean. Ti cone has option to burn wood.
  • Cons: more fiddling to set up, slower boils than canister stoves, initial learning curve, not available at major retailers.
  • Comments: Personal favorite for almost 10 years
  • Note: although the TD “12-10 burners” are good, the ideal stove/burner for this system is the Zelph “TD Kojin Stove.” See below for more Caldera options.
  • 19.5 oz – $80
  • Pros: ease of use, much faster boils, appealing slim form factor, built-in insulating pot sleeve—no handle or gloves needed, less expensive, french press option for coffee. Available at major retailers like REI
  • Cons: 2x heavier, not as wind resistant as the TD Caldera, fuel canisters not readily available in remoter areas of the lower 48 or worldwide, end-up taking more fuel than needed since canisters are fixed amounts, disposal of partially used canisters a pain*, deep pot hard to clean
  • Comments: not as “efficient” as claimed when canister weight is considered. About 50% of of the canister weight is the metal can and not fuel.

*  Lower cost Caldera systems with similar weight and performance are available. The system above is the titanium Ti-Tri Sidewinder Cone, which supports alcohol, Esbit, and burning wood fuel. The pot is also titanium. An aluminum dual fuel (alcohol & Esbit) cone and aluminum pot option costs $55 Caldera Sidewinder Solo. If you already have the pot the titanium Ti-Tri Sidewinder Cone is $80 without the pot.


JetBoil Zip: The JetBoil is the best selling backpacking stove of all time. Most people just take a liking to it at first glance and never look back. It’s easy to use, boils water fast, has an appealing slim form, and has that wow-cool-gizmo! factor going for it. Clockwise from lower left, french press option; JetBoil pot, burner, canister, and stabilizing tripod (orange); pot base cap/cup (black), CrunchIt canister recycling tool.


A friend’s stash of partially used fuel canisters that do not have enough fuel for another trip. It will take hours of outdoor fuel burning and then canister puncturing to keep these out of hazardous waste.

*Note: Dealing with partially used fuel canisters is a pain. And if you use a JetBoil you will likely end up with a boxful of partially filled canisters that do not have enough fuel for another trip. Disposing of the canisters is a  big production. One option is to put them in hazardous waste. The other option, per JetBoil, is to first a) burn all the unused fuel, and then b)  use a CrunchIt tool to puncture the “empty” container. This renders the canister suitable for metal recycle. (Both burning the unused fuel, and puncturing the canister must be done outside.)


Both stove systems stow into a small and compact package. The Trail Designs Caldera on the left; the cone is rolled up in a white sleeve and has the fuel bottle stored inside. Stove (green), lighter, spoon and fuel measuring cup all fit in the pot.

Which Stove is Best for You?

Alison and I and most backpackers we know prefer the the Trail Designs Caldera alcohol system. It’s half the weight of the JetBoil and greener with no partially used fuel canisters ending up in waste. Alcohol fuel is readily available worldwide. We have no difficulty using the Caldera. One of the advantages of the Trail Designs Caldera is that I can light it and leave it unattended to boil water while I perform camp chores. It is near impossible to kick over. It is almost impervious to wind—remaining fuel efficient even unprotected from strong wind. In about 7 minutes, when I’m done setting up camp, I come back to boiling water for dinner.

But my guess is that many readers will still end up getting the JetBoil canister system. It is the best selling backpacking stove of all time. Most people just take a liking to it at first glance and never look back. It’s easy to use, boils water fast, has an appealing slim form, and has that wow-cool-gizmo! factor going for it.

Unless you are a details maven, you need read no further. You have all the information you need.

The gritty details for those that care

Cooking for a long weekend for two people

Total weight is: stove, cookset and fuel container + fuel to boil 8 pints. Enough for a long weekend trip for two people. A long weekend trip is three days and two nights = cooking for two dinners and two breakfasts. (90% of backpackers take 90% of their trips for 3 days or less.)

2 dinners @ 16 oz water to hydrate meal + 4x @12 oz for hot drink = 5 pints water boiled
2 breakfasts @ 2×12 oz water for coffee or tea = 48 oz boiled water = 3 pints water boiled
Trip total for two people = 8 pints water boiled

Basic System specs

Trail Designs Caldera – alcohol stove  JetBoil – canister stove
9.7 oz – $120 tested – options to $55 available
Boil time for a pint = ~7 min
Stove/pot/cone = 5.4 oz
Fuel specs: 4.3 oz container and fuel = 0.8 oz plastic fuel bottle  + 3.5 oz-wt alcohol fuel
(efficiency ~0.4 oz-wt alcohol fuel to boil a pint)
19.5 oz – $80
Boil time for a pint = ~3-4 min
Weight: Stove/pot = 12.5 oz
Fuel specs: 7.0 oz container and fuel = 3.5 oz metal can + 3.5 oz-wt isopropane/butane fuel (100g)
(*efficiency ~0.2 oz-wt fuel to boil a pint – but doesn’t include wt of canister)

*Note: ~0.4 oz-wt alcohol vs. ~0.2 oz-wt propane/butane fuel for a boil. This is because alcohol has 1/2 the energy per weight of propane/butane. So it takes twice the weight of alcohol to boil a pint vs. propane/butane. Alcohol does not require a heavy metal canister for fuel storage, and has a lighter stove. So in the end, alcohol is the lighter overall system.

Options for the Trail Designs Caldera

Trail Designs Kojin Stove

Now updated with the better Trail Designs Kojin Stove. This burner eliminates most of the drawback of alcohol stoves:

Now updated with the better Trail Designs Kojin Stove. This burner eliminates most of the drawback of alcohol stoves:

  • No need to “estimate” how much alcohol fuel to use for a boil. Use a bit more (20-30%) than you’ll need & when the pot boils, blow the stove out & cap it (when cool) to save unused fuel. Brilliant!
  • BTW the Caldera boils a pint on about 15 ml of alcohol fuel
  • Burner will not spill lit fuel if it is knocked over, so safer than the burners without the fibrous fillers
  • Its more compact and fits inside the pot with the Caldera cone
  • It doesn’t require the use of titanium tent pegs that are needed to raise the pot when you use the Trail Designs 12-10 burner

Optional Fuel Container This Twin Neck Fuel Bottle (1.2 oz) both stores and measures fuel.


Standard quart container of Denatured Alcohol. Available in the paint section of most hardware stores, Home Depot, WalMart, etc.

Alcohol Fuel Sources/Options Denatured Alcohol (aka clean burning marine stove fuel, methylated spirits, shellac thinner,  liquid fondue fuel, chafing dish fuel). It is available world-wide in hardware stores (and in the US at Walmart or similar stores). In many countries like France it is sold in grocery stores as a fondue or chafing dish fuel. First choice in US is Klean-Strip Brand, likely labeled S-L-X “Clean burning fuel for marine stoves.” But I have used many other brands of denatured alcohol with no problems.

In a pinch, you can use HEET (Yellow label, not the Red label HEET) which is sold at all auto-supply stores and many gas stations and convenience stores like 7-11. HEET works fine, but has more residue than plain alcohol fuel.



pot-cozyPot Cozy Anti-Gravity-Gear Pot Cozys are lightweight and efficient cookpot insulators which allow you to save fuel. The cozy traps heat, so food continues to cook long after you have taken the pot off the stove and will keep it warm for nearly an hour. Especially useful for hydrating meals.






Trail Designs KEG-F. In an essential/stripped-down mode, the whole setup weighs around 3 ounces.


For Going Really Light! For soloing I take a stripped down version of the Caldera Keg-F Stove System. The stove, windscreen and pot are around 3 ounces!


Quick ways to reduce backpack weight

Moving fast and light along the spectacular ridge line of the GR20 in Corsica. A minimal pack (and good pre-trip training) enabled Alison and I to do a 16 day trip in under 8 days. Pictured – the award winning Hyperlite Mountain Gear 2400 Southwest Pack

Quick ways to reduce backpack weight. A few may surprise you…

  1. Look at The Big Three: Backpack, Tent/shelter, and Sleep System (sleeping bag, sleeping pad, and ground cloth). You stand to lose a bunch of weight from these: as much as 10 to 12 pounds.
    1. Take a Backpack that weighs less than two pounds. See our: Best Backpacks for Backpacking and Hiking
    2. Take a Tent that weighs less than two pounds. See our: Best Backpacking Tents | Lightweight & Ultralight
    3. Take a Sleeping bag that that weighs less than 1.5 pounds. See our: Buyers Guide to Lightweight Backpacking Quilts & Sleeping Bags
    4. Look at our 9 Pound Full Comfort Lightweight Backpacking Gear List for more ideas for gear to save weight.
      Nine pounds of backpacking gear is all a hiker needs to be safe and warm. Or simply put, this list has better backpacking gear. For over a decade it’s been tested, refined, and updated to reflect only the best and most current backpacking gear now available in 2019. So, if you want to reduce pack weight without reducing comfort, look no further! The hiking gear in this guide is suitable for all 3-season conditions on trips around the world, from Alaska, to Patagonia, to Utah.
  2. Look on The Backpacking Food Page to save a ton of weight at zero cost
  3. Get a weather report (the NOAA hourly weather graph is among the most informative and accurate)—then pack for those conditions! Since 90% of backpackers take 90% their trips for 3 days or or less, this weather report should be quite accurate for the short time you are out. This will let you pack a tent, clothing, and sleeping bag appropriate for actual conditions. It will also deter you from taking inappropriate, “what-if-the-worst-happens!” gear, e.g. 6 pound tent, and a +10F sleeping bag for a balmy weather trip on the Appalachian Trail.
  4. Don’t take extra clothing. e.g. don’t take any more clothing than you can wear at one time.
  5. Take less: Be disciplined and leave a few items at home that you haven’t used in the last three trips. Put stuff like sunscreen and trail soap in smaller containers.
  6. Extra Credit: Browse The Gear Lists Page for other ideas and examples to save weight. This will give you a good examples of what type of gear is available and what is a reasonable weight for that type of gear, e.g. around 6-8 ounces for a rain jacket, or around 1.0 ounce for a pocket knife. Think hard if your gear is 2 to 3x heavier than the examples on these lists.
  7. Read my The Best Hydration — Drink When Thirsty. Use a Sawyer Squeeze Water Filter to drink at the source (lake, stream, etc.). Then only carry a sensible amount to get to your next known water source. I.e. it makes no sense to carry 3 liters of water, almost 7 pounds, when your next water source is only two hours away.
  8. Remember to have fun! That will at least, lighten your spirit and mood.

How Do I Start?

  • Ground yourself in reality: Get all your stuff together and weigh it. If you’re like most conventional hikers, your equipment will weigh around 30 pounds, possibly higher.
  • Get individual weights for your heavier items like tents and backpacks. For stuff in the range of a few pounds or less you’ll want to buy an inexpensive digital scale that weighs up to 10 pounds.
  • See what you can leave at home. Anything you don’t bring is free weight reduction. Think hard about this one. Do you really need it?
  • Put together a spreadsheet (or at least a list) with all your equipment weights. This is an indispensable analysis tool.
  • Try to figure out where you’ll get the most “bang for the buck.” e.g. figure out how much a new item costs and divide that by the amount of weight it will save you over your old equipment. Target the items that give you the most weight loss for the fewest dollars.
  • Buy on Sale: Don’t try to purchase all your new equipment right away. Many items regularly go on sale or are closed out. Watch carefully over the course of a year and you could save 30 to 70 percent on your equipment.

NEW June 2016 – Meal Recipes are Posted. See Nutritious Backpacking Meal Recipes here

This list is packed with nutritious backpacking food for a “week long” trip of 7 days

  • 6 nights of dinners and breakfasts
  • 7 days of lunches and daytime snacks

That is you don’t eat breakfast on the day your go in. And you don’t eat dinner on the day you come out. This is equivalent to around 6.6 full days hiking. I’ve organized the food so that it should be easy to scale to more or fewer hiking days.

Note: any entry with a blank in “qty” means the food item is an alternative that may be a) added and/or b) substituted for another item on the list. For example if you are veggie, you could substitute one of the soy jerkies (Primal & Stonewall) the meat jerky. And to easily add vegetables to my homemade dinners I use freeze dried vegetables from Just Tomatoes. I like the “Hot Just Veggies.”

A Simple and Nutritious Backpacking Food List for 7 days

Breakfasts (6 mornings) qty oz tot c/oz Comments
Familia Breakfast (with Bob’s Red Mill Muesli) 2 5.5 11.0 125 see Recipe Page
Grape Nuts/Kashi Seven Nuggets (my recipe) 2 5.0 10.0 124 see Recipe Page
Oatmeal Breakfast (my recipe) 2 5.4 10.8 115 see Recipe Page
Coffee, Starbuck’s VIA ($0.72/cup @Amazon) 6 0.1 0.8 4g pkt  = 130-140 mg caffeine
Coffee for gold filter brewing 25g per 12 fl-oz 0.9  alternative to instant coffee, less $
Tea – bag or loose leaf (4-6g per 12 fl-oz) 0.1 if using bags, sealed packets are best
Lunches (7 days) qty oz tot c/oz Comments
Dense whole grain bread (lunch serving) 3 2.0 6.0 80
Almond Butter (2 oz serv) 3 2.0 6.0 155 pers fave – eat w bread/crackers
Tuna in olive oil 2.6 oz pkt (2.9 oz incl packet) 2.9 65 eat w bread, oil adds cal’s & healthy fat
Crackers, Dr Kracker (lunch serving) 2 1.5 3.0 125 Awesome, high calorie & indestructible
Cheese (lunch serving) 2 2.5 5.0 115 eat with crackers
TJ’s whole wheat tortillas 2 2.0 4.0 80
Dry salami (without nitrates) 2 2.5 5.0 105 eat with tortillas
Mustard packets n/a to eat with cheese or salami
Bison Jerkey (3.5 oz bag) 3.5 60  online, or TJs and Whole Foods
Turkey Jerky 4.0 90  online, or TJs and Whole Foods
Primal Strips Meatless Vegan Jerkey (teriyaki) 1.0 100 vegan protein option – up to 11g prot.
Stonewall’s Jerquee (soy based) 1.5 110 veggie protein option – up to 14g prot.
Dinners (6 nights) qty oz tot c/oz Comments
Black Beans & Rice w Cheese & Corn Chips (yum!) 2 5.5 11.0 115 see Recipe Page
Chili Mac Dinner 2 5.5 11.0 120 see Recipe Page
Curry Cous Cous Dinner 2 6.0 12.0 135 see Recipe Page
Desserts (6 nights) qty oz tot c/oz Comments
Snickers Bar or MilkyWay Midnight 2 2.1 4.2 135 daytime snack or dessert
Chocolate (dark) 4 2.0 8.0 153 great when eaten with dried fruit
Cocoa Nibs 1.0 150 tasty when added to dark chocolate
Snakwell Cookie Packet 2 1.7 3.4 123 great with hot chocolate
Hot Chocolate (make your own with Nido) 2 2.2 4.4 130 see Dessert recipe Page
Snack Bars (for ~7 days) qty oz tot c/oz Comments
Kind Bars 4 1.4 5.6 150
Lara Bar 1.8 130
Pro Bar Meal Bar 2 3.0 6.0 125 healthy, easy to eat
ProBar’s Base Protein Bars 2 2.5 4.9 114 adds 20g of soy protein
Cliff Builder’s Protein Bar 2 2.5 4.9 115 adds 20g of soy protein
Snacks (for ~7 days) qty oz tot c/oz Comments
Gorp (50% walnuts, 50% dried fruit – raisins?) 7 2.0 14.0 150  usually mix my own
Honey sesame sticks 7 1.8 12.6 150  online or at Whole Foods
Candied nuts (TJs has a ton of varieties) 3 1.5 4.5 150
Almonds, raw 4 2.0 8.0 165
Walnuts, raw 185
Dried mango un-sweetened/sulfered 3 2.0 6.0 90 also great dessert with dark chocolate!
Apricots (dried, un-sweetened, un-sulfered) 4 1.5 6.0 87 also great dessert with dark chocolate!
Papaya (dried, un-sweetened, un-sulfered) 100  at Whole Foods
Raisins, organic (Thompson, TJs) 95
Generic dried fruit 85
Jelly Bellies 93
Tic-Tacs 0 mindless fun to eat on trail
Pringles 150 tasty, high in calories
Lb of food for trip 11.5
Lb food per day 1.7
Calories/day 3,530
Calories/oz of food 127